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Python基础教程6:运算符

作者: afenxi来源: afenxi时间:2017-04-06 15:53:09

什么是运算符?

本章节主要说明Python的运算符。举个简单的例子 4 +5 = 9 。 例子中,4和5被称为操作数,"+"号为运算符。

Python语言支持以下类型的运算符:

算术运算符 比较(关系)运算符 赋值运算符 逻辑运算符 位运算符 成员运算符 身份运算符 运算符优先级

接下来让我们一个个来学习Python的运算符。

Python算术运算符

以下假设变量a为10,变量b为20:

运算符 描述 实例 + 加 - 两个对象相加 a + b 输出结果 30 - 减 - 得到负数或是一个数减去另一个数 a - b 输出结果 -10 * 乘 - 两个数相乘或是返回一个被重复若干次的字符串 a * b 输出结果 200 / 除 - x除以y b / a 输出结果 2 % 取模 - 返回除法的余数 b % a 输出结果 0 ** 幂 - 返回x的y次幂 a**b 为10的20次方, 输出结果 100000000000000000000 // 取整除 - 返回商的整数部分 9//2 输出结果 4 , 9.0//2.0 输出结果 4.0

以下实例演示了Python所有算术运算符的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 c = a + b print "Line 1 - Value of c is ", c c = a - b print "Line 2 - Value of c is ", c c = a * b print "Line 3 - Value of c is ", c c = a / b print "Line 4 - Value of c is ", c c = a % b print "Line 5 - Value of c is ", c a = 2 b = 3 c = a**b print "Line 6 - Value of c is ", c a = 10 b = 5 c = a//b print "Line 7 - Value of c is ", c

以上实例输出结果:

Line 1 - Value of c is 31 Line 2 - Value of c is 11 Line 3 - Value of c is 210 Line 4 - Value of c is 2 Line 5 - Value of c is 1 Line 6 - Value of c is 8 Line 7 - Value of c is 2 Python比较运算符

以下假设变量a为10,变量b为20:

运算符 描述 实例 == 等于 - 比较对象是否相等 (a == b) 返回 False。 != 不等于 - 比较两个对象是否不相等 (a != b) 返回 true. <> 不等于 - 比较两个对象是否不相等 (a <> b) 返回 true。这个运算符类似 != 。 > 大于 - 返回x是否大于y (a > b) 返回 False。 < 小于 - 返回x是否小于y。所有比较运算符返回1表示真,返回0表示假。这分别与特殊的变量True和False等价。注意,这些变量名的大写。 (a < b) 返回 true。 >= 大于等于 - 返回x是否大于等于y。 (a >= b) 返回 False。 <= 小于等于 - 返回x是否小于等于y。 (a <= b) 返回 true。

以下实例演示了Python所有比较运算符的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 if ( a == b ): print "Line 1 - a is equal to b" else: print "Line 1 - a is not equal to b" if ( a != b ): print "Line 2 - a is not equal to b" else: print "Line 2 - a is equal to b" if ( a <> b ): print "Line 3 - a is not equal to b" else: print "Line 3 - a is equal to b" if ( a < b ): print "Line 4 - a is less than b" else: print "Line 4 - a is not less than b" if ( a > b ): print "Line 5 - a is greater than b" else: print "Line 5 - a is not greater than b" a = 5; b = 20; if ( a <= b ): print "Line 6 - a is either less than or equal to b" else: print "Line 6 - a is neither less than nor equal to b" if ( b >= a ): print "Line 7 - b is either greater than or equal to b" else: print "Line 7 - b is neither greater than nor equal to b"

以上实例输出结果:

Line 1 - a is not equal to b Line 2 - a is not equal to b Line 3 - a is not equal to b Line 4 - a is not less than b Line 5 - a is greater than b Line 6 - a is either less than or equal to b Line 7 - b is either greater than or equal to b Python赋值运算符

以下假设变量a为10,变量b为20:

运算符 描述 实例 = 简单的赋值运算符 c = a + b 将 a + b 的运算结果赋值为 c += 加法赋值运算符 c += a 等效于 c = c + a -= 减法赋值运算符 c -= a 等效于 c = c - a *= 乘法赋值运算符 c *= a 等效于 c = c * a /= 除法赋值运算符 c /= a 等效于 c = c / a %= 取模赋值运算符 c %= a 等效于 c = c % a **= 幂赋值运算符 c **= a 等效于 c = c ** a //= 取整除赋值运算符 c //= a 等效于 c = c // a

以下实例演示了Python所有赋值运算符的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 c = a + b print "Line 1 - Value of c is ", c c += a print "Line 2 - Value of c is ", c c *= a print "Line 3 - Value of c is ", c c /= a print "Line 4 - Value of c is ", c c = 2 c %= a print "Line 5 - Value of c is ", c c **= a print "Line 6 - Value of c is ", c c //= a print "Line 7 - Value of c is ", c

以上实例输出结果:

Line 1 - Value of c is 31 Line 2 - Value of c is 52 Line 3 - Value of c is 1092 Line 4 - Value of c is 52 Line 5 - Value of c is 2 Line 6 - Value of c is 2097152 Line 7 - Value of c is 99864 Python位运算符

按位运算符是把数字看作二进制来进行计算的。Python中的按位运算法则如下:

运算符 描述 实例 & 按位与运算符 (a & b) 输出结果 12 ,二进制解释: 0000 1100 | 按位或运算符 (a | b) 输出结果 61 ,二进制解释: 0011 1101 ^ 按位异或运算符 (a ^ b) 输出结果 49 ,二进制解释: 0011 0001 ~ 按位取反运算符 (~a ) 输出结果 -61 ,二进制解释: 1100 0011, 在一个有符号二进制数的补码形式。 << 左移动运算符 a << 2 输出结果 240 ,二进制解释: 1111 0000 >> 右移动运算符 a >> 2 输出结果 15 ,二进制解释: 0000 1111

以下实例演示了Python所有位运算符的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 60 # 60 = 0011 1100 b = 13 # 13 = 0000 1101 c = 0 c = a & b; # 12 = 0000 1100 print "Line 1 - Value of c is ", c c = a | b; # 61 = 0011 1101 print "Line 2 - Value of c is ", c c = a ^ b; # 49 = 0011 0001 print "Line 3 - Value of c is ", c c = ~a; # -61 = 1100 0011 print "Line 4 - Value of c is ", c c = a << 2; # 240 = 1111 0000 print "Line 5 - Value of c is ", c c = a >> 2; # 15 = 0000 1111 print "Line 6 - Value of c is ", c

以上实例输出结果:

Line 1 - Value of c is 12 Line 2 - Value of c is 61 Line 3 - Value of c is 49 Line 4 - Value of c is -61 Line 5 - Value of c is 240 Line 6 - Value of c is 15 Python逻辑运算符

Python语言支持逻辑运算符,以下假设变量a为10,变量b为20:

运算符 描述 实例 and 布尔"与" - 如果x为False,x and y返回False,否则它返回y的计算值。 (a and b) 返回 true。 or 布尔"或" - 如果x是True,它返回True,否则它返回y的计算值。 (a or b) 返回 true。 not 布尔"非" - 如果x为True,返回False。如果x为False,它返回True。 not(a and b) 返回 false。

以下实例演示了Python所有逻辑运算符的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 10 b = 20 c = 0 if ( a and b ): print "Line 1 - a and b are true" else: print "Line 1 - Either a is not true or b is not true" if ( a or b ): print "Line 2 - Either a is true or b is true or both are true" else: print "Line 2 - Neither a is true nor b is true" a = 0 if ( a and b ): print "Line 3 - a and b are true" else: print "Line 3 - Either a is not true or b is not true" if ( a or b ): print "Line 4 - Either a is true or b is true or both are true" else: print "Line 4 - Neither a is true nor b is true" if not( a and b ): print "Line 5 - Either a is not true or b is not true or both are not true" else: print "Line 5 - a and b are true"

以上实例输出结果:

Line 1 - a and b are true Line 2 - Either a is true or b is true or both are true Line 3 - Either a is not true or b is not true Line 4 - Either a is true or b is true or both are true Line 5 - Either a is not true or b is not true or both are not true Python成员运算符

除了以上的一些运算符之外,Python还支持成员运算符,测试实例中包含了一系列的成员,包括字符串,列表或元组。

运算符 描述 实例 in 如果在指定的序列中找到值返回True,否则返回False。 x 在 y序列中 , 如果x在y序列中返回True。 not in 如果在指定的序列中没有找到值返回True,否则返回False。 x 不在 y序列中 , 如果x不在y序列中返回True。

以下实例演示了Python所有成员运算符的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 10 b = 20 list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]; if ( a in list ): print "Line 1 - a is available in the given list" else: print "Line 1 - a is not available in the given list" if ( b not in list ): print "Line 2 - b is not available in the given list" else: print "Line 2 - b is available in the given list" a = 2 if ( a in list ): print "Line 3 - a is available in the given list" else: print "Line 3 - a is not available in the given list"

以上实例输出结果:

Line 1 - a is not available in the given list Line 2 - b is not available in the given list Line 3 - a is available in the given list Python身份运算符

身份运算符用于比较两个对象的存储单元

运算符 描述 实例 is is是判断两个标识符是不是引用自一个对象 x is y, 如果 id(x) 等于 id(y) , is 返回结果 1 is not is not是判断两个标识符是不是引用自不同对象 x is not y, 如果 id(x) 不等于 id(y). is not 返回结果 1

以下实例演示了Python所有身份运算符的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 20 b = 20 if ( a is b ): print "Line 1 - a and b have same identity" else: print "Line 1 - a and b do not have same identity" if ( id(a) == id(b) ): print "Line 2 - a and b have same identity" else: print "Line 2 - a and b do not have same identity" b = 30 if ( a is b ): print "Line 3 - a and b have same identity" else: print "Line 3 - a and b do not have same identity" if ( a is not b ): print "Line 4 - a and b do not have same identity" else: print "Line 4 - a and b have same identity"

以上实例输出结果:

Line 1 - a and b have same identity Line 2 - a and b have same identity Line 3 - a and b do not have same identity Line 4 - a and b do not have same identity Python运算符优先级

以下表格列出了从最高到最低优先级的所有运算符:

运算符 描述 ** 指数 (最高优先级) ~ + - 按位翻转, 一元加号和减号 (最后两个的方法名为 +@ 和 -@) * / % // 乘,除,取模和取整除 + - 加法减法 >> << 右移,左移运算符 & 位 AND ^ | 位运算符 <= < > >= 比较运算符 <> == != 等于运算符 = %= /= //= -= += *= **= 赋值运算符 is is not 身份运算符 in not in 成员运算符 not or and 逻辑运算符

以下实例演示了Python所有运算符优先级的操作:

#!/usr/bin/python a = 20 b = 10 c = 15 d = 5 e = 0 e = (a + b) * c / d #( 30 * 15 ) / 5 print "Value of (a + b) * c / d is ", e e = ((a + b) * c) / d # (30 * 15 ) / 5 print "Value of ((a + b) * c) / d is ", e e = (a + b) * (c / d); # (30) * (15/5) print "Value of (a + b) * (c / d) is ", e e = a + (b * c) / d; # 20 + (150/5) print "Value of a + (b * c) / d is ", e

以上实例输出结果:

Value of (a + b) * c / d is 90 Value of ((a + b) * c) / d is 90 Value of (a + b) * (c / d) is 90 Value of a + (b * c) / d is 50

原创文章,作者:大西,如若转载,请注明出处:《Python基础教程6:运算符》http://www.afenxi.com/post/5126

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